Sojourner Project

Lyon College Special Collections
Regional Studies Center
Mabee-Simpson Library
Lyon College
P.O. Box 2317
Batesville, AR 72503-2317
Telephone: 870-307-7509





Title:                           Sojourner Collection

Collection size:           1 linear ft. (2 boxes)

Donor:                        Jo Blatti, Batesville, Ark.

Repository:                Lyon College Special Collections, Regional Studies Center


Information About the Sojourner Project and the Collection

Residents of Batesville and Independence, County Arkansas have experienced a remarkable moment in time. The extended community has been participating in a significant demographic change as the state’s immigrant population swells. According to reports commissioned by the Winthrop Rockefeller Foundation in 2007, Arkansas had the fastest growing immigrant population nationwide between 1990 and 2000. Based on school and general population information for Independence County, the Hispanic population grew from less than 1% to 10-15 %.

This is a remarkable cultural change in a very short period of time. This pattern of international migrant labor in search of work articulates with a global history of immigration – the third major wave of immigration in American history - and also interestingly with a regional Ozarks pattern of migrant labor in the Midwest and Pacific Northwest. Unlike earlier North American migrations located in the Northeast and Upper Midwest, this one occurred in the Mid- and Upland South and Southwest, with a very different set of cultural and economic factors at play.

The Sojourner oral history project, conducted in English and Spanish, is conceived as a gift to the future, documenting this moment in time in a rural Mid-South community. The focus of the project is on everyday life and experience. Interviewees include school, city and county officials, health workers, poultry plant workers, grocery store managers, church contacts, restaurant managers and owners, teachers and students.

Where do longtime residents and newcomers encounter one another? What experiences, beliefs and attitudes does each group bring to the community? How does this new group change the mix? Forty-two interviews were conducted, twenty-four in the longtime Batesville community and eighteen in the incoming Hispanic community. All interviews, both on cassette and in digital form, are archived at the Regional Studies Center, Lyon College, and at the Butler Center for Arkansas Studies in Little Rock.

Project director Jo Blatti is an independent historian with many years' experience with oral history projects. She worked with a group of community residents and resource persons, a number of whom are bi-lingual, to preserve this important chapter in the community’s history. The project was housed at an office on the Lyon College campus in Batesville, 2009. Blatti assisted in writing the Oral History Association Evaluation Guidelines. She has received grants for oral history and other public history projects from the National Endowment for the Humanities and other funders. This project was supported in part by grant from the Arkansas Humanities Council and the National Endowment for the Humanities.

The working group for the Sojourners project included local, statewide and national resource persons including: Dr. Steve Striffler, Anthropology, University of New Orleans; Dr. David Stricklin, Butler Center for Arkansas Studies, Little Rock; Dr. Monica Rodriguez, Lyon College; Randy Scaggs, UACCB; Dr. Rose Diaz, independent scholar, New Mexico; Joyce Richey, ESL Program, Batesville Public Schools; Peter Liebhold, Bracero Project, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C.

Adapted from Jo Blatti's description of the Sojourner Project, September 2009.



Detailed Series Description 

BOX 1: Hispanic interviews 

Folder 1: Bynum, Maria

Community volunteer & translator (62 years old, female) describes unpaid & paid activities on behalf of the Hispanic/Latino community as individual liaison and part-time employee at White River Medical Center, Arkansas Department of Human Services, & Batesville public schools. Includes information about childhood in bilingual community in Norwalk, California, marriage to Vietnam vet with Arkansas roots, role as emergency contact for many migrant families, observations about make-up & status of migrant community, convener of migrant information sessions. Importance of role to her, no one to interpret for her mother.

Folder 2: Cabrera, Elva

Translator (mid-50s, female) discusses family background in Weslaco, Texas, and migrant labor, primarily Missouri & Great Plains. Learned Spanish in high school. Raised as white in tri-racial migrant camps. Discusses work at Townsend's poultry IQF freezing department as translator for attorney Gary Vinson (all Batesville), also TX positions as secretary & LPN, also translator for Townsend's. Discusses family brushes with the law, son's drug problems, changes in hometown on Mexican border, ID theft affecting family, recent reduction in hours & pay at Batesville Townsend's plant, tensions between native-born & migrant Latinos in Independence County.

Folder 3: Cruz, Maribel

Bilingual outreach worker (40 years old, female) for Parents to Teachers program shares her family history. Family from Mexico to California circa 1985, later followed relatives to Arkansas, her work history in retail clothing, then poultry plants. Associated with Centro Cristiano, an evangelical Protestant church with Hispanic/Latino leadership. Describes outreach to primarily Mexican & Guatemalan families - school forms, doctor visits, water hook-ups, whatever necessary. Reflects on "bi-lingual" vs. "immersion" teaching debate from an observant parent's point of view.

Folder 4: Garcia, Maricella

Immigration counselor (female, U.S. citizen, Nicaraguan heritage, age 33) describes family background in California & Arkansas; military service; work with afterschool program for Hispanic kids in southwest Little Rock, 2003-2008; current work as immigration counselor at McDonald Center, Catholic Diocese of Little Rock; related domestic violence and human trafficking issues. Discusses complexities of fees & rules in immigration bureaucracy, process of credentialing for counselors, reform measures such as Dream Act. Refers to Roman Catholic Bishop Anthony Taylor’s pastoral letter regarding migration and human rights, response within diocese. Describes visit to Nicaragua via Clinton School internship, also work on AR delta. Notes difficulty mixed status migrant families face, inconsistencies among immigration law and state laws.

Folder 5: Garcia, Ralph

Bilingual son of Mexican migrant workers, born in U.S. & raised in Batesville area, discusses recent migration from his perspective as a member of the only Hispanic family in the area for many years. Gives family history following crops, his activities in storage & wrecker business, political interests, translation activities, instances of discrimination.

Folder 6: Garcia, Juana Scarlet

Education worker and co-pastor Centro Cristiano (female Hispanic/Latina, age 36, originally from El Salvador) discusses affiliation with Protestant evangelical church as path to migration circa 2000; process of learning English; recruitment and church growth in Batesville; transience among Hispanic community in search of work; her job with Parents to Teachers outreach program of Batesville public school system. Describes immediate family in Arkansas, education & language acquisition issues, food, culture, homeownership, work on immigration papers, concerns for family in El Salvador, deteriorating conditions there.

Folder 7: Gayton, Miriam

Translator Independence County health department (female, age 40, originally from El Salvador), describes illegal immigration 1990s, fines & administrative path to citizenship, deteriorating situation in hometown, concerns for family there. Describes health department program, her role as translator. Describes family’s mixed cultural heritage – husband U.S. citizen Mexican background ; she learned Tex-Mex, also prepares puposas and other Salvadoran specialties. Discusses purchase of home, celebration of some holidays – differences due to Salvadoran calendar and church affiliation. Recommends pastors of church. [Note: became U.S. citizen in course of Sojourner project.]

Folder 8: Harville, Lupe

Community volunteer & translator (female, U.S. citizen of Mexican heritage, age 43) describes family background in Acapulco; immigration to U.S. circa 1986 to learn English; work in California restaurants; courtship & marriage to Anglo man who became physician. Discusses her volunteer work translating in Batesville schools, at White River Medical Center, women’s shelter & her husband’s ob-gyn practice. Discusses machismo, male violence in Hispanic culture, comments on an experience while on hospital advisory board; her self-education via a rigorous reading program. Notes social –cultural differences among cities in western & eastern U.S. and small town Arkansas; her children’s identity questions; difficulties migrants face in personal lives –hopes & fears of such a move. Tells of discriminatory incident in California, assistance of husband’s family in that situation; difficulties of caring for aging parents who wish to remain in Mexico; deteriorating conditions there.

Folder 9: Hernandez, Guillermo

37-year-old immigration attorney, originally from Mexico, discusses family migration to U.S. which began with his college education on tennis scholarship at Harding University in Searcy, Arkansas, and eventually involved parents, a sister and brother from Guadalajara. Also describes Little Rock & statewide immigration practice based on family and employment issues, current immigration policy, and family Spanish grocery business in Searcy operated by his parents. Includes considerable information about middle class life & business in Mexico in 1980s, his decision to attend law school.

Folder 10: Hernandez, Santos & Juana

Couple (male 30, originally from San Luis Potosi, Mexico , female, 35, originally from Oklahoma, met in AR 1990s) describe work as technicians on contract growing and research farm in Newport [AR] area. Husband is principal speaker. He outlines bi-cultural family life - parents primarily Spanish speakers, kids English speakers. Family’s cultural geography Jonesboro to Searcy, occasional visits to Little Rock & Memphis. Family attends Spanish language services at local Episcopal church. Describes Mexico as too difficult, no money, hopes to see family there, introduce youngest child. Mentions soccer, basketball with sons, friends.

Folder 11: Huerta, Hilario

Businessman, 42 years old, originally from Sinaloa, Mexico, discusses learning baking trade & English in California, mid-1990s; move to Batesville area ca. 2001; work at Townsend’s poultry plant, home-based check-cashing business ; investment in La Ilusion grocery; multi-national Hispanic customer base; bakery business to multiple AR cities ; comparison U.S. & Mexico; his Batesville home & investment properties; family in U.S. & Mexico.

Folder 12: Medina, Leopoldo

Batesville water dept worker, male, 45 years old, originally from San Felipe Gto. Guanajuato, Mexico; describes entry U.S. as agricultural worker w/ visa ca 1990 - DeQueen, Bald Knob AR crops; later work in poultry plants SW & north AR [both contract chicken catching & live chicken hanging in plant] , getting citizenship, learning English; family farm in central Mexico; describes local migration over time – used to know everybody, translating on occasion at work. Home owner rural Batesville. Notes wife American & children are English speakers.

Folder 13: Newsome, Miriam & Les

Chef, head of culinary arts program, Ozarka Community College, Melbourne, AR [female, age 58, originally from Guatemala, joined at points by American husband, age 71, originally from SW AR] discusses immigration to California as mother’s helper ca 1971. She describes courtship, younger brother Juan and other siblings [see Juan Ramirez interview] migration to the U.S.; visits home; learning English via TV and notebook. Husband Les describes work with U.S. Border Patrol, civilian business trips to Latin America. Both describe move back to AR in 1985 – DeQueen poultry plant, Melbourne AR farm, friendships & mentoring in Hispanic community, affiliation St. Mary’s Catholic Church in Batesville. Her initial sense of hardship moving to rural Ozarks – cooking, customs and education.

Folder 14: Vasquez, Wilma Plaza

Bi-lingual lab technician, Independence County Dept of Health, female, age 53, Puerto Rican heritage, discusses service to Hispanic residents: family planning and WIC [Women Infant & Children] clinics. Fairly detailed descriptions of common situations clinic patrons discuss with staff members- STDs, birth control, pregnancy. Describes her family background, Puerto Rican cooking, family members in Batesville, musical tastes, choices about translating in nonprofessional situations, perspectives regarding general reception of Hispanic community.

Folder 15: Ramirez, Juan

Teacher, Batesville public schools [male, 40 years, originally from Guatemala] discusses migration as a child with father, growing up in older sister’s household [See Mimi Newsome interview], also education, early work catching chickens, U.S. Army, telecommunications. Describes his experiences and perspectives teaching English as second language in school system with many Hispanic students – especially interest in fostering civics & mutual understanding. Shares childhood memories Guatemala City, acquaintance & participation regional Hispanic community, an incident of suspected harassment when catching chickens. Notes former wife American, their child primarily English speaker.

Folder 16: Ramirez, Minerva

Lunch cart owner [female, 60 years old, originally from Durango, Tamaulipas] describes business across from Townsend’s poultry plant, ambition to move to building near intersection Chaney Drive & St. Louis [occurred in 2010], recipes, focus on life in U.S. Route from retail & trucking work in McAllen TX area via AR agricultural work to Batesville resettlement. Church of Christ affiliation. English speakers at home. Family in area. Search for ingredients home& restaurant cooking – Houston, Little Rock, Wal-Mart. Home owners, rural Batesville.

Folder 17: Renteria, Rosa

Bi-lingual, bi-cultural outreach worker Parents to Teacher program Batesville public schools [female, age 36, originally from Ciudad Juarez, Chihuahua, moved to Texas] describes activities in community education program, learning English at age 8, comparisons U.S.-Mexicans systems, family’s affiliation Batesville Church of Christ & Leo Rainey ca 2005, husband’s present job at Ideal Bread, family home on Broad Street, food & folkways, selective commemoration Mexican holidays.

Folder 18: Velin, Pablo

Construction worker, male, age 56,originally from Ecuador, came to U.S. circa 2006, describes business as tourist guide in homeland, college degree, training as Amazon River guide; activities with St. Mary’s Catholic Church; food ways; learning English; path to Batesville via New York; describes political & economic difficulties in Ecuador – also deforestation of Amazon, effects on tourism, plans to conduct natural [eco-tourism?] business upon return; importance of English education for daughter in U.S.; family divided – wife & daughter return to other children in Ecuador; shares his observations of "Hispanos" attitudes, behavior in U.S. [Note: this interview conducted in Spanish, Dr Monica Rodriguez translating.]


BOX 2: Anglo interviews 

Folder 1:Baxter, Nick

Office manager, Batesville Water Department, describes growing up as an international adoptee in Batesville, Hispanic migration to community, comparison to Vietnamese community, city response to language issues, documentation concerns, water department as source of information about demographics of community, family's experience renting to Hispanics, importance of his personal background in relation to perception/experience of migration.

Folder 2: Bowers, Keith

Independence County Sheriff, 43 years old, discusses career in law enforcement, compares Independence County to other jurisdictions, gives overview of drug & alcohol enforcement issues in a rural Arkansas county. Discusses impact of Hispanic migration on law enforcement, language issues, liaison Immigration Customs Enforcement (ICE), drivers license/insurance, domestic abuse situations. Describes most Hispanics as law-abiding & hardworking; describes self as intrigued by Hispanic culture. Notes that wife is tri-lingual, describes her use of skills in community.

Folder 3: Bryan, Murray

Human resources manager, 62-year-old male, at Townsend's Poultry gives overview of plant operations/relation to two other processors in community. Summarizes his own work in the chicken business. Describes Hispanic presence in poultry processing dating to 1980s in North Carolina. Notes poultry operator efforts (language classes, supervisor hires) to accommodate changing workforce. Describes recent Townsend's Batesville expansion based in part on Hispanic labor pool. Notes high turnover in industry. Discusses pay & benefits. Note: Narrator speaking as private individual, not as representative of employer.

Folder 4: Burr, Rita

Community volunteer, 57-year-old female, occasional employee of poultry processors, temp services, lawyers, others needing translation services, describes teaching herself fluent Spanish & motivation for becoming an advocate for migrant Hispanic community. Describes Vietnamese school tutoring project that put her on the road to volunteerism, several legal & community situations she translated for. Discusses current U.S. immigration policy and effects on immigrants.

Folder 5: Cole, Dale

Banker (male, early 60s) gives overview of regional economy as merchant center for 100,000 in northern Arkansas - based on small business & individual payroll funds. Saw evidence of Hispanic/Latino presence in late 1990s - bank income from check cashing fees. Describes efforts to find Spanish-speaking staff, develop ads, brochures, etc. Discusses Mexican restaurant history in Batesville, including an attempt to attract one. Tells story of bank buying back mortgage of Hispanic/Latina homeowner after technical problem arose & kept her in the house. Describes as matter of good faith.

Folder 6: Conner, John L.

Large scale delta famer and businessman (white male, age 61) discusses family history in Newport [AR] area; changes in agriculture during his lifetime-cotton, move to vegetables; his memories of bracero program. He describes contemporary contract labor operations, racial profiling by area police, role of incoming Hispanic migrants in declining delta communities, his comparative observations/investments Latin American agriculture.

Folder 7: Conyers, Tim

Batesville code enforcement officer (white male, age 48) describes family background in area, training as electrician, former work as sheriff’s deputy, employment decisions based on staying in the area. Discusses code enforcement work as building inspection, mostly remodels in current economy. Studying Spanish – goal job fluency. Describes interactions with Batesville Hispanic community as strictly professional.

Folder 8: Elumbaugh, Rick

Batesville mayor Rick Elumbaugh (white male, age 56) describes background as coach & physical education teacher in area schools. Noticed Hispanics entering community late 1990s. Discusses school & municipal accommodations Hispanic presence, recruitment new businesses, believes Batesville generally welcoming. Notes zero tolerance drugs & gangs, his friendship with Spanish teacher Juan Ramirez, an immigrant.

Folder 9: Ford, R.L.

Observations of 59-year old Batesville native, who provides translation services and liaison for the Hispanic community for pay. A one-time bail bondsman, Ford maintains an office in a building owned by & occupied principally by attorneys. Discusses his role in providing translation of documents [birth certificates] early in the migration, also criticisms within translation community, effects of recession on immigration.

Folder 10: Hay, Mary Ann

Nurse, mid-50s, working for a migrant co-op based in Bald Knob, Arkansas, discusses her work on behalf of the multi-cultural migrant community in the eastern half of the state - liaison with schools, efforts to get other health care providers to donate services, Batesville as one of the largest & most stable Hispanic communities, her own pragmatism & commitment to improving the situation, earlier work in Valley of Mexico, what she terms her "baby Spanish."

Folder 11: Henderson, Darron

Emergency medical technician (white male, age 33) describes previous work at Batesville chicken plant and manufacturing concern [White Rodgers]. Discusses details of trauma work, transfers between nursing homes & hospital. Describes Spanish language booklet EMTs carry, use of calming touch ,etc in accidents, relatively small proportion Hispanic ambulance calls in his experience . Notes that rents went up as Hispanics came into area, crime rate increased. His personal experience positive, plays pool with a group of Hispanics, admires family values of the community.

Folder 12: Howard, Harvey

Principal Central Magnet School in Batesville [Anglo male, age 63] originally from Cave City. Discusses career Army in mid-South, differences predominately Hispanic and African American communities, importance of trust, focus on kids - not parents in school situation. Describes several different stories of migration and English language acquisition. Compares Ashdown in SW Arkansas and Batesville in north central Arkansas. His own taste for Latin American food. Batesville as jewel: do city fathers want to grow? Respect for people moving to improve lives.

Folder 13: Molin, John

Code enforcement officer, city of Batesville [Anglo male, 64] describes early life Lansing MI and Vermont, relocation as ‘snowbirds.’ Dates Hispanic presence to about 1991. Sees people when doing wrong. He performs heating & air inspections and gives trash notices. Most [migrants] hardworking. Lots of need for translations – his notices and much else – is being done. He does a lot of cooking – ‘treats guys here’ to chicken or turkey tacos . Turns ‘blind ear’ to any discriminatory talk.

Folder 14: McClure, Chad

Director, Batesville Code Enforcement Department [Anglo male, 35] describes wife’s work with Big Brothers, Big Sisters, now with Batesville schools. Family plumbing business, his education in public administration, first job in Conway, AR. Describes overall responsibilities of department – enforcement, planning, preservation, building codes. Patterns of Hispanic rental & property ownership in community. Accommodations w/n dept to Hispanic residents – staff Spanish, translation. Family experience with Hispanic migration in school, play dates. Wife’s Hispanic co-worker. Experience speaking before Hispanic church group on behalf parks & recreation – good meeting. Just like everyone else across the board.

Folder 15: Nix, Sonia

Head of Independence County Health Department [Anglo female, age 55] originally from Malvern AR, previously nurse in Hot Springs and Newark AR, describes work with state agency for past 15 years administering WIC [Women, Infants &Children] Program family planning, birth control, immunizations, test & treat program for TB [tuberculosis] ,test & treat for STDs [sexually transmitted diseases]. First saw Hispanic patients around 1999, now staff includes FT interpreter. Don’t count caseload by language service. 1600 caseload, 1900 family planning. Re: TB If characteristic scar [from Mexican immunization] take into consideration. Issues of compliance w/ TB testing & treatment. Do not require documentation of citizenship for treatment. Issues of appointment keeping – now better. Describes having to conduct a "drug raid" at a tienda – differences U.S & Mexican practice.

Folder 16: Perkey, Bertha

Retired postal office worker and landlord [Anglo female, age 73] discusses family background in Independence County, her curiosity about Hispanic migration from 1990s forward, family rental property on College Street in Batesville, relationships with Hispanic tenants.

Folder 17: Richey, Joyce

Head of ESL [English as Second Language ] Program Batesville Public Schools[Anglo female, ____] gives brief overview career in education as classroom teacher, reading specialist and principal prior to ESL position. Notes this is not Spanish only – Chinese, Japanese, Vietnamese, often modifications for individual students, now also a major migration from several Latin American countries. Notes links and limits between in-school language assistance and testing. Describes Migrant Program services available to many students in Batesville system, including support for further schooling . Describes several students and families she has gotten to know in course of her work. Outlines bases for language immersion program, national debate over best practices concerning bi-lingual/immersion approaches. Her observations concerning effects of drug raids, documentation raids on children in school. Identifies businesses that welcome Hispanic community – realty, autos, grocery. Hispanic culture as more tolerant life style.

Folder 18: Sanders, Jack

Principal Sulphur Rock Magnet School [Anglo male, age 49] describes family background Cedar Grove, Moorefield areas Independence county, early teaching & administrative career in area. First noticed Hispanic students around 1997-98, ministry at Harrison Church of Christ as contact for kindergarten. Discusses federal programs to assist kids - migrant, ESL, Title I funds. Different schools in Batesville system – service to black & Latino students – after school program modeled on NW Arkansas. Immersion program model for language learning, issue of some instruction in Spanish 4H project, soccer project opportunities for community-wide participation. Discusses the complexities of migration status, his commitment to education, others in school system.

Folder 19: Shoffner, Wendy & John

John [Anglo male, 63] and Wendy [Anglo female, 58] describe his longtime family farm in Jackson County, AR, their decision to return to it and use it for research projects for chemical & seed companies, their farm technicians, all Hispanic, trained to work alongside them on research projects. Four families on farm 4-15 years, all came in as agricultural workers, most citizens now. Describes the agricultural base in Jackson County, relationships with children on farm. Their efforts to learn Spanish, assist their workers with paperwork –hired lawyer to help worker with Medicaid claim. Notes high skill levels – masonry, etc.- of many migrants, work ethic. Problems with guest worker program. Use contractor to get legal people. Spanish services at local Episcopal Church [Newport, AR]. Report some discrimination against Hispanic drivers in delta communities. Report some feeling [on part of others] Hispanics taking jobs. In agriculture necessary – couldn’t function without . Others won’t stay with us. Concludes by describing international visitors who come to see how we conduct breeding experiments – two Hispanic technicians primary liaisons.

Folder 20: Smith, John Ed

Manager Batesville Kroger grocery [Anglo male, age 59] describes growing up in north Arkansas, career with Kroger company at various locations throughout the state following college. Batesville store trade area Ash Flat to Rosie area, approximately 13,000 weekly. Noticed Hispanic customers around 1997 – demand for tortillas, El Paso items, has carried ever since. True for every store with poultry base [Russellville, Conway, Morrilton] . Candles 8-10" tall [votives] one of largest. Number of Western Unions – now several a day. Briefly describes Hispanic customers shopping habits, use of spokespersons. Speaks about his parents’ lives on New Mexico ranches w/ Hispanic families. One bagger at store is Hispanic. Comments on pharmacy and prescriptions – sees few Hispanics at that part of store.

Folder 21: Snapp, J. Russell

Episcopal priest at St. Paul’s Newport – note: since relocated to Trinity Cathedral, Little Rock- [Anglo male, age 51] gives brief family history in Woodruff County, Independence County area, personal history as teacher Davidson College in North Carolina, later attendance seminary New York . Explains community context priestly education Episcopal Church – assignment at parish & diocesan level. His experience moving back to AR & St Paul’s Newport, church in decline, Hispanic workers as opportunity for growth – commitment of church & diocese. Taught self Spanish, conducted services, his hopes for larger ministry in Arkansas, lay & clerical. Newport, El Puente restaurant as gathering place. Hispanic parishioners replicate cultural patterns – memorial mass, quinceanera , less distinction sacred & secular. His observations about where Hispanic parishioners/community members work. New life for Arkansas.

Folder 22: Taylor, Chaney

District court judge [Anglo male, age 54] describes family background in Independence & Sharp counties, initial degree in pharmacy, switch to law. Solo practice in Batesville, political opportunities – 1995 constitutional convention, state legislature 1998-2004, state judgeship open in 2004 – traffic court & petty crime jurisdiction Independence County. Outlines duties, also special interest in DWI court. Notes that Hispanics in court largely for traffic violations, presence proportional to population. Describes dealings with ICE [Immigration, Customs & Enforcement] Sees that people pay fines & serve time concurrently with ICE holds. Discusses problems of getting proper ID in court with some Hispanic individuals. Describes migrants as hard workers, should welcome them. Need to get legal. Describes post graduate school trip to American Southwest and more recent rips to Mexico. Expresses concern about consenting adults entering into contracts. Doesn’t see profiling from police in his court .

Folder 23: Tosh, Kenny

Manager Vitalink ambulance service Batesville AR [Anglo male, age 46] describes family background Cushman area Independence county. Volunteer fireman, Emergency Medical Technician school, became paramedic, into ambulance work. Vitalink serves 50,000 north Arkansas, 7,000 calls per year - mix accidents & illnesses, nursing home transfers, 100 employees. Relatively few Hispanic calls. Translators listed, web-site for translation, also booklets with pictures on ambulance. No distinctive pattern to Hispanic calls – a few alcohol-related. He is fan of Mexican food, goes to new restaurants in Batesville, daughter has friend at high school. Hears both positive & negative messages about migration. Welcomes, equal opportunity here – no applications so far.

Folder 24: Vinson, Gary

Attorney Gary Vinson [Anglo male, age 64] discusses background in central Arkansas, education, early Batesville practice, focus on criminal, estates, social security, deeds & contracts. Not an immigration lawyer. Became the Batesville attorney with a Hispanic practice because translator in building. Describes traffic & insurance issues undocumented face - same as an Arkansan. If go to jail, ICE [Immigration Customs Enforcement will send out a hold. Notes that criminal law pretty clear, criminals usually are criminal, just trying to get best deal. Describes a case in which doubted guilt of young man in meth case; evidence buried in yard, mother did not understand English search warrant. Some law enforcement: if Hispanic in car, good reason to stop – hopefully in jest. Suggests a translator as potential narrator.

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